Grade 11 Geography Exam Papers PDF

Grade 11 Geography Exam Papers PDF: Facts in South Africa


Geography is a subject that deals with the study of the Earth’s surface, its physical features, and its human inhabitants. It is a broad and diverse field that encompasses a wide range of topics, from the study of climate and weather to the distribution of population and resources.

In South Africa, geography is a compulsory subject for all students in Grade 11. The Grade 11 geography exam paper is designed to assess students’ knowledge and understanding of the following topics:

  • Physical geography: This section of the exam paper covers topics such as the Earth’s structure, plate tectonics, landforms, and climate.
  • Human geography: This section of the exam paper covers topics such as population distribution, migration, urbanization, and economic development.
  • Environmental geography: This section of the exam paper covers topics such as pollution, climate change, and sustainable development.

Physical Geography

Earth’s Structure

  • The Earth is a sphere that is made up of three main layers: the crust, the mantle, and the core.
  • The crust is the outermost layer of the Earth and is made up of solid rock.
  • The mantle is the layer of the Earth that lies beneath the crust and is made up of molten rock.
  • The core is the innermost layer of the Earth and is made up of solid iron and nickel.

Plate Tectonics

  • The Earth’s crust is divided into a number of tectonic plates that are constantly moving.
  • The movement of these plates is caused by convection currents in the mantle.
  • When two tectonic plates collide, one plate may be forced beneath the other in a process called subduction.
  • Subduction can lead to the formation of volcanoes and earthquakes.
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  • Landforms are the physical features of the Earth’s surface.
  • Landforms are created by a variety of processes, including erosion, deposition, and tectonic activity.
  • Some of the most common landforms include mountains, hills, valleys, rivers, and lakes.


  • Climate is the average weather conditions in a particular area over a long period of time.
  • Climate is determined by a number of factors, including latitude, altitude, distance from the ocean, and prevailing wind patterns.
  • South Africa has a variety of climates, from the hot and humid climate of the coastal regions to the cold and dry climate of the interior.

Human Geography

Population Distribution

  • The population of South Africa is unevenly distributed.
  • The majority of the population lives in the urban areas, with the largest cities being Johannesburg, Cape Town, and Durban.
  • The rural areas of South Africa are sparsely populated.


  • Migration is the movement of people from one place to another.
  • There are a number of reasons why people migrate, including economic reasons, political reasons, and environmental reasons.
  • South Africa has a long history of migration, both from within the country and from other countries.


  • Urbanization is the process of people moving from rural areas to urban areas.
  • Urbanization is a global trend that is driven by a number of factors, including economic opportunities, better education, and access to healthcare.
  • South Africa is a rapidly urbanizing country, with the majority of the population now living in urban areas.

Economic Development

  • Economic development is the process of improving the economic well-being of a country.
  • Economic development can be measured by a number of factors, including GDP per capita, literacy rates, and life expectancy.
  • South Africa is a developing country that has made significant progress in recent years. However, there are still a number of challenges that the country faces, including poverty, unemployment, and inequality.
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Environmental Geography


  • Pollution is the contamination of the environment with harmful substances.
  • Pollution can come from a variety of sources, including factories, cars, and agriculture.
  • Pollution can have a negative impact on human health and the environment.

Climate Change

  • Climate change is the long-term change in the Earth’s climate.
  • Climate change is caused by a number of factors, including the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation.
  • Climate change is having a significant impact on the Earth’s environment, including rising sea levels, more extreme weather events, and changes in plant and animal life.

Sustainable Development

  • Sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
  • Sustainable development requires a balance between economic development, social development, and environmental protection.
  • South Africa is committed to sustainable development and has adopted a number of policies to promote sustainable development.


The Grade 11 geography exam paper is a comprehensive assessment of students’ knowledge and understanding of the subject. The exam paper covers a wide range of topics, from the physical geography of the Earth to the human geography of South Africa. Students who are well-prepared for the exam will be able to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of these topics and earn a high score.