Geography Past Exam Papers And Memos Grade 9

Geography Past Exam Papers and Memos: Grade 9


Geography is a subject that requires a comprehensive understanding of the Earth’s physical and human characteristics. Exam papers and memos provide students with an opportunity to test their knowledge and identify areas for improvement. This document presents a compilation of past exam papers and memos for Grade 9 Geography in South Africa, covering various aspects of the subject.

Section 1: Physical Geography

1.1 Climate and Weather

  • Exam Paper:
    • Describe the factors that influence the distribution of rainfall in South Africa.
    • Explain the causes and effects of El Niño and La Niña.
  • Memo:
    • Factors influencing rainfall distribution: latitude, altitude, distance from the coast, prevailing winds.
    • Causes of El Niño: warming of the Pacific Ocean, weakening of trade winds. Effects: drought in South America, flooding in Australia.
    • Causes of La Niña: cooling of the Pacific Ocean, strengthening of trade winds. Effects: flooding in South America, drought in Australia.

1.2 Geomorphology

  • Exam Paper:
    • Describe the processes involved in the formation of mountains.
    • Explain the different types of erosion and their impact on the landscape.
  • Memo:
    • Processes of mountain formation: folding, faulting, volcanic activity.
    • Types of erosion: water erosion (e.g., river erosion, coastal erosion), wind erosion, glacial erosion. Impact: creation of valleys, canyons, cliffs, sand dunes.

1.3 Biogeography

  • Exam Paper:
    • Describe the different biomes found in South Africa.
    • Explain the factors that influence the distribution of vegetation.
  • Memo:
    • Biomes: grasslands, savannas, forests, fynbos, deserts.
    • Factors influencing vegetation distribution: climate, soil, altitude, human activities.
Read also:  Life Science Grade 11

Section 2: Human Geography

2.1 Population Geography

  • Exam Paper:
    • Describe the population distribution of South Africa.
    • Explain the factors that influence population growth.
  • Memo:
    • Population distribution: concentrated in urban areas (e.g., Gauteng, Western Cape), sparsely populated in rural areas.
    • Factors influencing population growth: birth rate, death rate, migration.

2.2 Economic Geography

  • Exam Paper:
    • Describe the major economic activities in South Africa.
    • Explain the factors that influence the location of industries.
  • Memo:
    • Major economic activities: mining, agriculture, manufacturing, tourism.
    • Factors influencing industrial location: availability of raw materials, transportation, labor, markets.

2.3 Social Geography

  • Exam Paper:
    • Describe the different cultures found in South Africa.
    • Explain the challenges faced by South Africa in promoting social cohesion.
  • Memo:
    • Cultures: Zulu, Xhosa, Afrikaans, English, Indian.
    • Challenges to social cohesion: historical divisions, poverty, inequality, discrimination.

Section 3: Mapwork and GIS

3.1 Mapwork

  • Exam Paper:
    • Use a map to identify the major cities and rivers of South Africa.
    • Calculate the distance between two points on a map.
  • Memo:
    • Map interpretation: locating cities, rivers, and other features.
    • Distance calculation: using scale and measuring tools.

3.2 GIS

  • Exam Paper:
    • Describe the different types of GIS data.
    • Explain how GIS can be used to solve real-world problems.
  • Memo:
    • Types of GIS data: spatial data (e.g., maps), attribute data (e.g., population statistics).
    • GIS applications: land use planning, environmental management, disaster response.


Past exam papers and memos are invaluable resources for Grade 9 Geography students in South Africa. They provide a comprehensive overview of the subject matter, allowing students to assess their understanding and identify areas for improvement. By studying these materials, students can enhance their knowledge and prepare effectively for upcoming exams.