Geography Grade 12

  • joub
  • Feb 26, 2024

Geography Grade 12: Facts in South Africa


Geography is the study of the Earth’s physical features, climate, and human activities. It is a vast and complex subject that encompasses a wide range of topics, from the formation of mountains to the distribution of populations. In South Africa, geography is a compulsory subject for Grade 12 learners, and it plays an important role in helping them to understand their country and the world around them.

Physical Geography

South Africa is a country with a diverse and beautiful physical geography. It is home to a wide range of landscapes, including mountains, deserts, forests, and grasslands. The country’s highest point is Mafadi Peak in the Drakensberg Mountains, which rises to an elevation of 3,450 meters. The lowest point is the Orange River mouth, which is at sea level.

South Africa’s climate is also varied. The country has a subtropical climate in the north and a temperate climate in the south. The average temperature in South Africa is 18 degrees Celsius. The country receives an average of 500 millimeters of rainfall per year, but this varies greatly from region to region.

Human Geography

South Africa is a country with a rich and complex human geography. The country is home to a diverse population of over 58 million people. The majority of South Africans are black (80%), followed by white (9%), coloured (9%), and Indian (2%).

South Africa is a multilingual country. The official languages are English, Afrikaans, isiZulu, isiXhosa, Sesotho, Setswana, Sepedi, Xitsonga, and Tshivenda. The most widely spoken language is isiZulu, which is spoken by over 25% of the population.

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South Africa is a developing country. The country has a GDP of $350 billion and a per capita income of $6,000. The country’s economy is based on mining, agriculture, and tourism.

Environmental Geography

South Africa is facing a number of environmental challenges. These challenges include air pollution, water pollution, and land degradation. The country is also vulnerable to climate change.

Air pollution is a major problem in South Africa. The country’s cities are among the most polluted in the world. The main sources of air pollution are vehicles, power plants, and industrial activities.

Water pollution is also a major problem in South Africa. The country’s rivers and lakes are polluted by sewage, industrial waste, and agricultural runoff.

Land degradation is another major problem in South Africa. The country’s soils are being degraded by erosion, salinization, and desertification.

Climate change is also a major threat to South Africa. The country is already experiencing the effects of climate change, such as rising sea levels, more frequent and intense droughts, and more extreme weather events.


Geography is a vital subject for Grade 12 learners in South Africa. It helps them to understand their country and the world around them. Geography also provides learners with the skills they need to make informed decisions about the future.